The worst thing about stubbornness of mind, about prejudices, is that they arrest development; they shut off the mind from new stimuli. Open-mindedness means retention of the childlike attitude; closed-mindedness means premature intellectual old age. — John Dewey
In late 2010, Professor Richard Arum led an extensive four year study that examined the development of critical thinking skills in 2,322 college students spread across 24 universities and colleges. The participants were your traditional college aged students. The study’s impact and what it means for our education system are still resonating across academia and the web.
The findings actually confirm what many of us suspected: Our higher education system fails to significantly improve the critical thinking skills in a large number of college graduates. Here’s the basic findings of the study:
- Forty-five percent (45%) of the students made no significant improvements in their critical thinking, reasoning or writing skills during the first two years of college.
- Even after four years of higher education, thirty-six (36%) [that’s almost 4 in 10] of those in the study showed no significant improvement in what’s called “higher order” thinking skills.
I don’t think most of us were necessarily surprised at all by the first two bullet points. And I know those of us who’ve studied the Liberal Arts in-depth are definitely not surprised (and a bit self satisfied too) by this last finding.
- Students majoring in the traditional liberal arts — social sciences, humanities, natural science and mathematics — showed significant progress in higher order skills, like critical thinking, complex reasoning and writing. Students majoring in business, education, social work and communications showed the least gains in higher order skills.
According to Arum a number of students in the study had a difficult time separating fact from opinion, being able to objectively review a report or develop a clearly written and well reasoned argument in writing. There are a number of contributing factors to what’s going on. One of them is that colleges and universities aren’t demanding higher standards. The study revealed that college students are spending less and less time studying and more and more time socializing. And obviously students have more free time because less is being demanded of them in class.
It’s ironic that colleges and universities have been cutting back on liberal arts courses during these tough economic times. The very courses that have shown to consistently improve higher order skills in students. Outside of a specialty skill, critical thinking has got to be high on a potential employers list.
The study brings up two other points for me. If we have up to forty-five (45%) of students, after two years of college, showing no significant improvement in critical thinking skills we might ought to wonder whether we have some big problems at the primary and secondary schooling level. I realize we have other factors to consider at the primary and secondary level, but if entering college freshmen already had a strong foundation in critical thinking then expanding it shouldn’t be that challenging. If college freshmen entered college with those “habits of mind” already engrained then the journey forward shouldn’t be as difficult.
Secondly, if almost 4 in 10 college graduates aren’t showing any significant improvement in “higher order” thinking skills we can only imagine what the percentage is amongst high school graduates who never attend college. I suspect it’s pretty high. All of this can’t make us surprised by the increasing degree of social and economic challenges an every growing segment of our population faces in a technologically advanced, globalized economy.
As I discussed in my prior post, the study of philosophy had a big impact on me. It’s hard to brush up against great minds and not be affected by them. And because philosophy is very much about conceptual engineering it makes philosophy the foundation of every field of study. As I stated in my prior post, philosophy was once known as the “queen of all sciences.” Well, you can test this proposition now in a unique way. As the team at Xefer puts it: “There was an idea floating around that continuously following the first link of any Wikipedia article will eventually lead to ‘Philosophy.‘” And so it does!
Go to Xefer’s page and click on the picture and try it for yourself.
Two highly recommended podcasts for those interested in Western history.
The History of Rome
The History of Byzantium
I can’t recall who it was right now, but one Enlightenment era philosopher said, “The way to the world is through the printed page.” Reading allows us to broaden our minds beyond the narrow confines of our own experience and way of thinking. It helps us “see.” As Douglas Wilson said: “Education is the process of selling someone on books.” The importance of education and reading is one of my themes in this blog. I found this picture on the net and it nicely displays just how books work – by changing our view.
(Photo credit: DMotivation)